pope julius ii documentary

[3], In his early years as Pope, Julius II removed the Borjas from power and exiled them to Spain. [124], Despite producing an illegitimate daughter (and having at least one mistress), it was suggested that Julius may have had homosexual lovers – although it is not possible to establish this claim.

My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. Some of the cardinals were displeased with the pope's anti-French policy, and five of them went so far as to convoke a schismatic council at Pisa on 1 September. After the murder of her lover Caesar, Egypt's queen Cleopatra needs a new ally. Giuliano held the archdiocese until his later election to the papacy.

This League had been formed by Emperor Maximilian I and Louis XII of France chiefly with the purpose of forcing Venice to restore its recent continental conquests to their original owners. It was the shortest conclave in the history of the papacy. The warlike Julius II personally directed the campaign against both, setting out at the head of his army on 26 August, 1506. In 1506, Julius II established the Vatican Museums and initiated the rebuilding of the St. Peter's Basilica.

On 22 August 1476 he founded the Collegium de Ruvere in Avignon. He had scarcely recovered, when, braving the inclemency of the weather, he marched against Mirandola which he took on 20 January, 1511. While Pope Julius II is also remembered as the “Warrior Pope” for his Machiavellian tactics, he was also given the name of "the Renaissance Pope." Taking no notice of this synod, Julius again assumed personal command of his army and set out for Northern Italy. der Papste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters (3rd ed., Freiburg, 1904), 563-871, tr. 427-429. El Cid) overcomes a family vendetta and court intrigue to defend Christian Spain against the Moors. The same year he organized the renowned Swiss Guards for his personal protection and commanded a successful campaign in Romagna against local lords. ROME — Pope Francis endorsed gay civil unions for the first time as pope while being interviewed for a feature-length documentary that made its premiere at the Rome Film Festival on Wednesday. "[82] Julius, who modeled himself after his namesake Caesar, would personally lead his army across the Italian peninsula under the imperial war-cry, "Drive out the barbarians." [35] On 28 December 1484, Giuliano participated in the investiture of his brother Giovanni as Captain-General of the Papal Armies by Pope Innocent VIII. Pastor, VI, pp. [12], In December 1503, Julius issued a dispensation allowing the future Henry VIII of England to marry Catherine of Aragon; Catherine had previously been briefly married to Henry's older brother Prince Arthur, who had died, but Henry later argued that she had remained a virgin for the five months of the marriage. Della Rovere, however, had enemies, both because of the influence he had exercised over Pope Sixtus IV and because of his French sympathies. Choose an adventure below and discover your next favorite movie or TV show. When Cesare Borgia passed through southern France in October 1498 on his way to meet King Louis XII for his investiture as Duke of Valentinois, he stopped in Avignon and was magnificently entertained by Cardinal della Rovere. The Sala de Papi was redecorated by two pupils of Raphael by order of Pope Leo X. Pastor, VI, pp. Even then, he could be dispensed. The film told the story of his late wife’s grandparents, who had traveled from Philadelphia to Nazi Germany in 1939 to save several dozen Jewish children before the walls closed in. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08562a.htm [90] The League fought against the Republic of Venice. From 25 to 27 August, 1511, his life was despaired of. Oxford University Press. Nevertheless, although Julius had centralized and expanded the Papal States, he was far from realizing his dream of an independent Italian kingdom. [46], On 31 August 1492 the new Pope, Alexander VI, held a consistory in which he named six cardinal legates, one of whom was Giuliano della Rovere, who was appointed Legate in Avignon. [12] He had three brothers: Bartolomeo, a Franciscan friar who then became Bishop of Ferrara (1474–1494);[13] Leonardo; and Giovanni, Prefect of the City of Rome (1475–1501)[14] and Prince of Sorea and Senigallia. var m_names=new Array("Jan.","Feb.","Mar.","Apr.","May","Jun.","Jul.","Aug.","Sept.","Oct.","Nov.","Dec.

Still he did not forget his duties as the spiritual head of the Church.

Dan Pine is a J. staff writer. The Della Rovere coat of arms bore an oak tree and the family was referenced with the emblem of the acorn, which had mythological, Christian, and Republican Roman iconographic associations. Beyond Julius II's political and military achievements, he enjoys a title to honor in his patronage of art, architecture, and literature.

He enlisted a progressive American priest, John LaFarge, who served in poor black parishes and wrote about racial injustice, to draft an encyclical specifically condemning antisemitism.

The synod also threatened the pope with a general council. He seemed less enthused by theology; rather, Paul Strathern argues, his imagined heroes were military leaders such as Frederic Colonna.

The biographical story of Michelangelo's troubles while painting the Sistine Chapel at the urging of Pope Julius II. Through Cardinal della Rovere, Sangallo had presented Charles VIII a plan for a palace, and in 1496 he had made a tour of the architectural monuments of Provence,[117] returning to his native Florence in 1497. They served political, spiritual and aesthetic purposes. In spite of a violent temper della Rovere succeeded by dexterous diplomacy in winning the support of Cesare Borgia, whom he won over by his promise of money and continued papal backing for Borgia policies in the Romagna. Julius died in 1513, and except for the Sistine Chapel ceiling, which he lived to see finished, his very largest commissions were finished after his death. He held the episcopal sees of Carpentras (1471-2), Lausanne (1472-6), Catania (1473-4), Coutances (1476-7), Mende (1478-83), Viviers (1477-9), Sabina (1479-83), Bologna (1483-1502), Ostia (1483-1503), Lodève (1488-9), Savona (1499-1502), Vercelli (1502-3), and the Archiepiscopal See of Avignon (1474-1503).

Indulgences (which remit the temporal effects of sins that have already been forgiven) involve the person receiving the indulgence doing some sort of good work, like donating to a charitable cause. According to an oath taken on his election to observe the Electoral Capitulations of the Conclave of October 1513,[100] Julius had sworn to summon a general council, but it had been delayed, he affirmed, because of the occupation of Italy by his enemies. As IMDb celebrates its 30th birthday, we have six shows to get you ready for those pivotal years of your life ... your 30s. In June Federico of Altamura was back in Rome and held conversations with Della Rovere, assuring him of Neapolitan protection. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. [42] Ferrante reacted by seizing the fiefs of the barons, and, when the two parties met to negotiate a settlement, Ferrante had them arrested, and eventually executed. He became an open partisan of the French and Venice, and accepted their goal, the destruction of the Sforza hold on Milan. Alexander's plan of securing a royal throne for his son fell through, and he was very angry. //

Heston is pretty good as Michelangelo but is, I think, overshadowed by Harrison, who is just marvelous as Pope Julius (a previous commenter remarked on the historically inauthentic absence of his beard; in addition, Julius was too old & inform too ride a horse into battle, but insisted on leading while carried on a litter).

His decision to rebuild St Peter's led to the construction of the present basilica. The prestige of the della Rovere family was seriously damaged, and in an attempt to exculpate himself Pope Innocent began to withdraw his support for them. APA citation. It was being reported in France by June 1496, moreover, that King Charles intended to have a papal election in France and to have Cardinal della Rovere elected pope.

As part of the Renaissance program of reestablishing the glory of antiquity for the Christian capital, Rome, Julius II took considerable effort to present himself as a sort of emperor-pope, capable of leading a Latin-Christian empire. Giuliano's chance of being elected was now better than at any previous election. [129] The French writer Philippe de Mornay (1549–1623) accused all Italians of being sodomites, but added specifically: "This horror is ascribed to good Julius. The pope now looked for aid to Spain, Venice, and England, but before completing negotiations with these powers he fell dangerously sick. Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and Bishop of Ostia, presided.

[76], Julius used his influence to reconcile two powerful Roman families, the Orsini and Colonna. The Spernadino medal of Giuliano Della Rovere (1488) is a prime example of a representation of the “Della Rovere oak". Raphael who had been working on other commissions in Florence immediately dropped his projects and moved to Rome to work for the Pope, but when he arrived he found many great artists painting in the Stanza della Segnatura.

However, many modern scholars interpret this fact to mean that Julius simply desired to be painted in the frescoes. 445-446. Might he have helped save the Jews? In a short time, both Henry VIII, King of England (1509–47), and Maximilian I also joined the Holy League of 1511 against France. He did not leave the city until 22 February, 1507, arriving again at Rome on 27 March.

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